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POCKET GUIDE TO AUSTRALIAN BANKNOTES 3 A Decimal Reformation THE INTRODUCTION OF DECIMAL CURRENCY TO AUSTRALIA

Decimal Series | 1966–1967

The banknotes for the decimal currency series, 1966–1967, were printed in Melbourne at the Bank’s note printing branch at Victoria Parade, Fitzroy, where the printing operations had been established in 1924. They remained at this address until transferred to Craigieburn, outside Melbourne, in 1981.

The security features of the first decimal currency banknotes included a watermark of Captain James Cook’s profile, and an internal metallic thread through the banknotes. The banknotes’ intaglio printing resulted in a raised ink film that gave an embossed feeling, especially evident on the front side of the banknote.

The British firm, Portals, developed versions of the watermark for the series, including images of the Australian coat of arms and portraits of James Cook. The portraits were based on the Royal Society’s commemorative medal of James Cook, 1784, which was also the basis of the watermark for the previous two series of banknotes.

Proposed watermarks by Portals for the decimal currency series; version 3 of James Cook’s portrait was selected.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-a1-121.

$1

Front of the $1 banknote showing Queen Elizabeth II, intaglio with dry offset printing, with watermark of Captain James Cook; concept design by Gordon Andrews, first issued in February 1966.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-003835.

The photograph was intended to portray the Queen as regal and majestic, with rich tonal details suitable for engraving on the banknote.

Douglas Glass, photograph of Queen Elizabeth II, 1964.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-002567.

Designs based on a bark painting by David Malangi Daymirringu (left-hand side) and rock paintings and carvings appeared on the $1 banknote, representing a more prominent expression of Aboriginal culture than shown on Australia’s previous currency. David Malangi Daymirringu’s bark painting describes the funeral rites of Gurrmirringu, one of his creation ancestors.

Back of the $1 banknote showing designs based on a bark painting by David Malangi Daymirringu and Aboriginal rock paintings and carvings to the right, intaglio with dry offset printing, with watermark of Captain James Cook; concept design by Gordon Andrews, first issued in February 1966.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-003835.

Gordon Andrews, reproduction of ink drawing for the design of the $1 banknote.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-002015.

$2

Front of the $2 banknote showing John Macarthur, intaglio with dry offset printing, with watermark of Captain James Cook; concept design by Gordon Andrews, first issued in February 1966.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-003855.

Guy Warren, portrait of John Macarthur as a preliminary design for the $2 banknote, ink and wash, 1965.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-002827.

The photograph was one of Gordon Andrews’ references for the image of the sheep on the $2 banknote.

‘Merino Stud Ewe at Mr A. Armstrong's St. Kilda Stud, Grenfell’, from Country Life magazine. Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences.

Back of the $2 banknote, showing William Farrer, intaglio with dry offset printing, with watermark of Captain James Cook; concept design by Gordon Andrews, first issued in February 1966.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-003855.

Gordon Andrews, keyline drawing of the wheat design on the $2 banknote.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-002027.

Specimens of wheat used by Gordon Andrews as models for the $2 banknote.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, MU-000375.

$5

Front of the $5 banknote, showing Sir Joseph Banks, intaglio with dry offset printing, with watermark of Captain James Cook; concept design by Gordon Andrews, first issued in May 1967.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-003885.

Keyline drawing of Sir Joseph Banks for $5 banknote, 1967.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-002835.

Sir Joseph Banks by Thomas Phillips, oil on canvas, c. 1814,

© National Portrait Gallery, Canberra (detail).

Back of the $5 banknote, showing Caroline Chisholm, intaglio with dry offset printing, with watermark of Captain James Cook; concept design by Gordon Andrews, first issued in May 1967.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-003885.

Caroline Chisholm by Angelo Collen Hayter, oil on canvas, 1852,

Dixson Galleries, State Library of NSW (detail).

Keyline drawing of Caroline Chisholm for the $5 banknote, 1967.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-002562.

$10

Front of the $10 banknote showing Francis Greenway, intaglio with dry offset printing, with watermark of Captain James Cook; concept design by Gordon Andrews, first issued in February 1966.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-003912.

Gordon Andrews, composite sketch of Francis Greenway’s architecture, including St James’ Church, Sydney, for the $10 banknote, black felttipped pen on tracing paper.

© Estate of Gordon Andrews. Museum of Applied Arts & Sciences.

The portraits of John Macarthur, William Farrer, Francis Greenway and Charles Kingsford Smith were prepared originally by the artist Guy Warren. The remaining portraits of the banknotes were rendered by Alfred Cook, who also assisted in the portrait of John Macarthur.

Back of the $10 banknote showing Henry Lawson, intaglio with dry offset printing, with watermark of Captain James Cook; concept design by Gordon Andrews, first issued in February 1966.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-003912.

Alfred Cook, study of Henry Lawson for the $10 banknote, ink and wash, 1965.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-002040.

$20

Front of the $20 banknote showing Sir Charles Kingsford Smith, intaglio with dry offset printing, with watermark of Captain James Cook; concept design by Gordon Andrews, first issued in February 1966.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-003928.

Keyline drawing of the portrait of Sir Charles Kingsford Smith.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-002052.

Back of the $20 banknote showing Lawrence Hargrave, intaglio with dry offset printing, with watermark of Captain James Cook; concept design by Gordon Andrews, first issued in February 1966.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-003928.

Gordon Andrews, study for the background of the Lawrence Hargrave side of the $20 banknote.

Reserve Bank of Australia Archives, NP-002875.

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